Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois to Grace Hall Hemingway and Doctor Clarence Edmonds Hemingway. He attended Oak Park and River Forest High School where he not only excelled in academics, but also boxed and played football. He wrote for the school’s newspaper and yearbook as a junior, and then went on to serve as editor his senior year.After graduating in 1917, Hemingway forwent college and opted to begin his writing career as a reporter for The Kansas City Star. But with World War I brewing, it was only a short six months before he left The Star and attempted to join the United States Army. After failing the medical examination, he decided to join the Red Cross Ambulance Corps instead, where he served as an ambulance driver in Italy until he was wounded in July of 1918.
Hemingway returned home in 1920 to not only land a job with The Toronto Star as a staff writer, freelancer, and foreign correspondent, but to eventually begin working as associate editor of the Co-operative Commonwealth monthly journal. With his career hitting new heights, Hemingway’s love life wasn’t far behind. He married Hadley Richardson, his first wife, in 1921. In December of that same year, they left Chicago and moved to Paris, France where Hemingway acted as a foreign correspondent in the covering of the Greco-Turkish War, and also published his first book, Three Stories and Ten Poems.In 1923, he left France and moved to Toronto, Canada where he continued writing for The Toronto Star. Hemingway made his American literary debut with the publication of his short story collection In Our Time, followed by the full-length novel The Sun Also Rises and the short-story collection Men Without Women. Hemingway later divorced his first wife and married Pauline Pfeiffer. The couple moved to Key West, Florida to start their new life together.
During the 1930s, Hemingway completed an estimated 70% of his work in Key West and was awarded the Nobel Prize. He went on to travel around the world, recording his experiences in his work.He lived in the Bahamas from 1935 to 1937 where he spent time fishing the waters and writing To Have and Have Not. He then traveled to Spain in order to report on the Spanish Civil War. It was here that his marriage began to suffer as his wife sided with the pro-Catholic regime of Franco, while he supported the Republican government. As the war ended, so did Hemingway’s marriage. However, he was soon remarried to Martha Gellhom, a woman he met while in Spain.During World War II, Hemingway went to Europe as a war correspondent for Collier’s magazine. It was here that he witnessed the events of D-Day and the liberation of Paris. After four years of marriage, Hemingway divorced Gellhorn, and married his fourth wife, fellow war correspondent Mary Welsh Hemingway, before moving to Cuba.
He was awarded the 1953 Pulitzer Prize, and then the Nobel Prize in Literature the following year.After fighting high blood pressure, diabetes, and liver problems for years, Hemingway died at his Idaho home on July 2, 1961 as the result of a self-inflicted shotgun wound to the head. He was buried in the town cemetery in Ketchum, Idaho, and in 1966 a memorial was built for him just north of Ketchum.