Who should be tested for diabetes
- being physically inactive
- having a parent, brother, or sister with diabetes
- having a family background that is African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, or Pacific Islander
- giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds or being diagnosed with gestational diabetes
- having high blood pressure—140/90 mmHg or above—or being treated for high blood pressure
- having an HDL, or “good,” cholesterol level below 35 mg/dL or a triglyceride level above 250 mg/dL
- having polycystic ovary syndrome, also called PCOS
- having IFG or IGT on previous testing
- having a condition called acanthosis nigricans, characterized by a dark, velvety rash around the neck or armpits
- having a history of cardiovascular disease—disease affecting the heart and blood vessels
Diabetes Diagnosis Tests:
Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test – measures blood glucose in a person who has not eaten anything for at least 8 hours. This test is used to detect diabetes and pre-diabetes.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) – measures blood glucose after a person fasts at least 8 hours and 2 hours after the person drinks a glucose-containing beverage. This test can be used to diagnose diabetes and pre-diabetes.
Random Plasma Glucose Test – also called a casual plasma glucose test, measures blood glucose without regard to when the person being tested had food. This test, along with an assessment of symptoms, is used to diagnose diabetes but not pre-diabetes.
The A1C Test
The C-Peptide Test
Table 1. FPG test
|Plasma Glucose Result (mg/dL)||Diagnosis|
|99 or below||Normal|
|100 to 125||Pre-diabetes
(impaired fasting glucose)
|126 or above||Diabetes*|
Table 2. OGT Test
|2-Hour Plasma Glucose Result (mg/dL)||Diagnosis|
|139 and below||Normal|
|140 to 199||Pre-diabetes
(impaired glucose tolerance)
|200 and above||Diabetes*|
Table 3. Gestational diabetes: Above-normal results for the OGTT*
|When||Plasma Glucose Result (mg/dL)|
|Fasting||95 or higher|
|At 1 hour||180 or higher|
|At 2 hours||155 or higher|
|At 3 hours||140 or higher|
- increased urination
- increased thirst
- unexplained weight loss
Gluxus Team’s Recommendations:
1) Get a blood glucose meter and start checking your blood glucose before meals and at bedtime. Keep records. Also note what you ate, any exercise and any unusual stress. If you suspect Type-II diabetes, also try to check an hour after eating. If you suspect hypoglycemia, check any time you have suspicious symptoms; you may also want to set up a few runs where you check every 15-30 minutes for up to five hours after eating.
Don’t try to make any adjustments based on the readings until you review them with your doctor — just keep the record and show it to the doctor. This will give the doctor more information than any examination or lab test can give. Furthermore, if you are waiting for an appointment, this record will put you ahead of the game when you actually see the doctor. (If during this monitoring you see a dramatic rise in blood glucose, to preprandial levels of 250 mg/dl
As an additional advantage, doing this monitoring on your own will demonstrate to the doctor that you are willing to put in this kind of effort. Often doctors are reluctant to ask patients to put in serious time to monitor their health because so many patients don’t follow up.
Blood glucose meters and all the supplies are OTC (Over The Counter) items. However, depending on where you live and what type of insurance or national medical coverage you have, you may have to pay from your own pocket if you do not have a prescription or proper pre-authorization. For a month or so of monitoring, this is probably worth the cost.
2) Increase your exercise level, within levels that are safe in light of any other medical conditions. In other words, if you are not already in an exercise program, consult your doctor. Exercise will also help with other stresses you are under. This is primarily applicable if you suspect type 2 diabetes, but may help with hypoglycemia also.
3) Improve your diet if you are not already watching it carefully. A standard diet with moderate calories and fat is good at this stage, until you see the specialist. If you suspect hypoglycemia, you may want to be especially careful of eating large amounts at one time, and avoid concentrated sugars.